The shoulder

The shoulder is made up of 3 bones: the scapula, the clavicle and the humerus.

Many muscles are involved in the movement of the arms and shoulders, we can divide them into 3 categories (according to their positioning):

  • Muscles between the scapula and the humerus: supraspinatus, teres major, teres minor and infraspinatus
  • Muscles between trunk and scapula: levator scapula muscle, rhomboid and trapezius
  • Muscles between the trunk and the humerus: the pectoralis major, the deltoid, the latissimus dorsi and the serratus anterior

The smallest and most fragile shoulder muscles are those that make up the rotator cuff. The cuff is a set of 4 muscles positioned on the "head" of the humerus: the supraspinatus, the infraspinatus, the teres minor and the teres major. The shoulder is a complex joint but also the most important of the human body because with it gives us great freedom of movement. We count 12 possible movements thanks to the shoulder joint:

The shoulders are often used joints, it must be ensured that they are not too strained to avoid injury. Injuries to tendons, muscles or joints can generate MSDs if they are anticipated, particularly in a professional context. Indeed, many factors such as carrying loads or prolonged postural maintenance (arms above heart level) tend to increase the risk of developing MSDs.

The two most common MSDs of the shoulder are tendinopathy and total cuff rupture. Tendinopathy can take 2 forms: acute (intense pain that appears during movement) or chronic (weak pain, discomfort present, uncertain or even permanent changes).

Total cuff rupture is a cut in one or more tendons that occurs after a fall (trauma) or wear. if necessary, the rupture of the cuff induces a surgical intervention to try to recover the mobility of the Shoulder.

To avoid the risk of developing MSDs, it is necessary to put in place a prevention approach supported by prevention experts in the company (occupational physician or ergonomist). These initiatives aim to raise awareness among both employees and organizations in order to preserve skills and improve working conditions.